Wednesday, 8 August 2018

SLIP FORM : Design Considerations

The Slipform should be designed so that the loads to which its various component parts are subjected are uniformly distributed, and the yokes are loaded as uniformly and axially as possible to avoid their overturning. The jacks should not be located in wall openings as for as possible. The loading should not exceed the lifting capacity of the jacks. 



The loads acting on Slipform can be classified as follows,

A. Basic Loads

1. Dead load due to the components

2. Live loads due to Concrete

3. Friction between form and concrete

4. Workmen

5. Materials

6. Machinery

7. Other installations

8. Auxiliary load due to the way of application of live loads

9. Crowds of workmen

10. Piles of materials

11. Shocks produced by material unloading


B. Accidental Loads

1. Wind pressure

2. Adhesion between concrete and form due to long interruption

3. Friction due to incorrect position of form

4. Failure of one jack

5. Extraordinary Loads

6. Breaking of certain members of the slipform

7. Failure of two adjacent jacks


Minimum concrete strength required for Slipform application,

2 Kg / cm2 - When releasing the Form

4 Kg / cm2 - When coming out from the Form

20 Kg / cm2 - After 24 hours since pouring

200 Kg / cm2 - After 28 days

Monday, 6 August 2018

SLIP FORM : Introduction

Slipform has been accepted as a precise construction technique within acomparatively short period of time – an indication of its considerable popularity. This popularity has in turn encouraged further research ensuring the adoption of new methods and modern materials, which have firmly established slipforming as an economical, rapid and accurate form of construction. Now that it is properly developed, the technique can be applied to many different forms of structure, including tapering formations with straight or parabolic profiles incorporating constant reductions in wall thickness. Traditional applications for slipforming are silos, chimneys, bridge piers, water towers, special application like construction of pylons, lift core wall of building, lining for tunnel shaft, framed structures etc.,



Principles of Slipform


Slipform construction, also referred to as sliding form construction, is similar to an extrusion process. Plastic concrete is placed in the forms, and the forms act as moving die to shape the concrete. Once the form has been filled with fresh concrete and hardening has started the form is gradually raised by the lifting devices on which it is suspended. The rate of movement of the form is regulated, so that the forms leave the concrete after it is strong enough to retain its shape while supporting its own weight. Pouring of concrete, tying of reinforcement, fixing of openings/inserts etc., are performed gradually from a working platform. An average sliding speed of 200 mm an hour is common, rising to 300 mm an hour under the best conditions and 100 to 150 mm an hour when large or complicated structures are being slip formed.

Monday, 7 May 2018

How To Do Mix Design Of Concrete As Per IS Code 10262 | SSD Condition | Moisture Content Condition


 The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible is defined as MIX DESIGN. The main role of mix design is to achieve the stipulated minimum strength and durability and second object is to make the concrete economical.

Here is a video by Er. Mukesh Sah from L & T - Learning Technology, explaining How To Do Mix Design Of Concrete As Per IS Code 10262 in SSD Condition & Moisture Content Condition. Watch the video carefully.






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NOTES SNAP - SSD CONDITION
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NOTES SNAP - MOISTURE CONTENT CONDITION
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LEARNING TECHNOLOGY is a Brand YouTube channel which contains Technical Lectures on "Civil Engineering" from personal field experience. This Channel is maintained by Civil Engineer MUKESH SAH. You can follow him by subscribing channel and HIT the bell for latest updates.
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Sunday, 1 April 2018

Determination of Specific Gravity of Cement by Specific Gravity Bottle

OBJECT OF EXPERIMENT


The object of the experiment is to determine the Specific Gravity of Cement by Specific Gravity Bottle. Specific Gravity of cement is the ratio of the mass of unit volume of cement at a stated temperature to the mass of the same volume of gas free kerosene at a stated temperature.

APPARATUS


1. Weighing balance
2. Specific Gravity Bottle
3. Kerosene
4. Cement

PROCEDURE


1. Weight empty Specific Gravity Bottle.
Weight of Empty Specific Gravity Bottle = .................... (W1)
2. Fill the half Specific Gravity Bottle with cement and weight it.
Weight of Specific Gravity Bottle + Cement = .................... (W2)
3. Now fill the remaining half portion of Specific Gravity Bottle with Kerosene oil and weight it.
Weight of Specific Gravity Bottle + Cement + Kerosene = .................... (W3)
4. Now empty the Specific Gravity Bottle and wash it properly. Then again fill the bottle completely with Kerosene oil and weight it.
Weight of Specific Gravity Bottle + Kerosene = .................... (W4)

DATA ANALYSIS


Calculate the Specific Gravity of Cement using the following formula :

SPECIFIC GRAVITY = (W2 - W1)/(W2 - W1) - (W3 - W4) * 0.79

WHERE, 0.79 = Specific Gravity of Kerosene oil.


Here is a Video By LEARNING TECHNOLOGY, which explains very beautifully about the process of determination of SPECIFIC GRAVITY & WATER ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATE


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NOTES SNAP
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For more Information and Videos, Visit LEARNING TECHNOLOGY
LEARNING TECHNOLOGY is a Brand YouTube channel which contains Technical Lectures on "Civil Engineering" from personal field experience. This Channel is maintained by Civil Engineer MUKESH SAH. You can follow him by subscribing channel and HIT the bell for latest updates.
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Visit His Official Websites, Facebook Fan Page and Twitter.
For Business Enquiry and Help, You can Email him.

Monday, 26 March 2018

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY & WATER ABSORPTION OF COARSE AGGREGATE

OBJECT OF EXPERIMENT


The object of the experiment is to determine the Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregate. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the mass of unit volume of aggregate at a stated temperature to the mass of the same volume of gas free distilled water at a stated temperature.

APPARATUS


1. Weighing balance
2. Thermostatically controlled oven
3. Glass vessel
4. Enamel tray
5. Air tight container
6. 10 mm IS sieve

PROCEDURE


1. Sieve the sample through 10 mm sieve to remove finer particles. Now take sample 1 kg.
2. Place the sample in glass vessel and fill the vessel partly with water. Keep the sample for 24 hours so that they are completely saturated.
3. After 24 hours fill the vessel completely and cover the vessel with disc so that no air can entrapped into vessel. Dry the vessel from outside. Now take the weight.
Weight of Vessel with disc + Sample + Water = .................... (A)
4. Drain the water of vessel. Now aggregates are placed on a dry cloth till it comes in SSD (Surface Saturated Dry) condition. Now weight.
Weight of aggregates in SSD condition = .................... (C)
5. Now fill the vessel with water completely. Cover the vessel with disc so no air can get into it. Now weight it.
Weight of Vessel with disc + Water = .................... (B)
6. Now place the SSD sample in enamel tray and keep it in thermostatically oven at 100 degree celcius for 24 hours. After 24 hours, let the sample cooled in air tight container. Now weight it.
Weight of Oven dry sample = .................... (D)

DATA ANALYSIS


Calculate the Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregate using the following formula :

SPECIFIC GRAVITY = D / C - (A - B)

WATER ABSORPTION = [(C - D)/D] x 100


Here is a Video By LEARNING TECHNOLOGY, which explains very beautifully about the process of determination of SPECIFIC GRAVITY & WATER ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATE


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NOTES SNAP
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For more Information and Videos, Visit LEARNING TECHNOLOGY
LEARNING TECHNOLOGY is a Brand YouTube channel which contains Technical Lectures on "Civil Engineering" from personal field experience. This Channel is maintained by Civil Engineer MUKESH SAH. You can follow him by subscribing channel and HIT the bell for latest updates.
Share, Support, Subscribe and Like !!!
Visit His Official Websites, Facebook Fan Page and Twitter.
For Business Enquiry and Help, You can Email him.

Sunday, 18 March 2018

Determination of Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Fine Aggregates

OBJECT OF EXPERIMENT


The object of the experiment is to determine the Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Fine Aggregate by using Pycnometer or Specific Gravity Flask. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the mass of unit volume of soil at a stated temperature to the mass of the same volume of gas free distilled water at a stated temperature.

APPARATUS


1. Weighing balance
2. Thermostatically controlled oven
3. Pycnometer
4. Enamel tray
5. Air tight container
6. Glass rod
7. Wash bottle
8. Filter Paper
9. Funnel

PROCEDURE


1. Take 500 gms of sample (Sand) in SSD (Saturated Surface Dry) condition.
Weight of Sample = .................... (D)
2. The sample is then placed in Pycnometer and fill the Pycnometer with Distilled water properly.
Weight of Pycnometer + Sample + Water = .................... (A)
Now, empty the contents of pycnometer in enamel tray. Wash and wipe the pycnometer properly.
3. Fill the Pycnometer with only distilled water.
Weight of Pycnometer  + Water = .................... (B)
4. The water form the enamel tray is removed by decantation in a beaker. Again the solution form the beaker is passed through filter paper with the help of funnel in another beaker. The total sample (sample left in enamel tray + sample left in filter paper) is then placed in an thermostatically controlled oven at 100 degree celcius for 24 hours. After 24 hours the sample is then allowed to cool in air tight container. Now note the weight of oven dry sample.
Weight of Oven dry sample = .................... (D)

DATA ANALYSIS


Calculate the Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Sand using the following formula :

SPECIFIC GRAVITY = D / C - (A - B)

WATER ABSORPTION = [(C - D)/D] x 100


Here is a Video By LEARNING TECHNOLOGY, which explains very beautifully about the process of determination of SPECIFIC GRAVITY & WATER ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATE



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NOTES SNAP
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For more Information and Videos, Visit LEARNING TECHNOLOGY
LEARNING TECHNOLOGY is a Brand YouTube channel which contains Technical Lectures on "Civil Engineering" from personal field experience. This Channel is maintained by Civil Engineer MUKESH SAH. You can follow him by subscribing channel and HIT the bell for latest updates.
Share, Support, Subscribe and Like !!!
Visit His Official Websites, Facebook Fan Page and Twitter.
For Business Enquiry and Help, You can Email him.

Tuesday, 23 January 2018

How to Measure Horizontal Distance Using AutoLevel Machine at Site | Learning Technology |

How to Measure Horizontal Distance Using AutoLevel Machine at Site | Learning Technology |
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An Autolevel machine is a professional tool generally used for accurate levelling. It is also used for measuring Horizontal distance at site. The method used to find the horizontal distance is known as 'Stadia Method'. The instrument must be used on a level surface for this method to work correctly. This Stadia range finding is good for locating topographic details such as rivers, fields, bridges, roads, and buildings.

To measure Horizontal Distance with the stadia measuring method, hold the staff rod so that it can be seen between the two stadia marks on the instrument's reticle (as pictured). With the Stadia Surveying Instrument i.e Aotolevel Machine focused on the rod, read the measurement markings on the stadia rod shown between the two stadia markings.


Say Upper Stadia Hairs =  1.63 meter       and Lower Stadia Hairs = 1.27 meter
Now Difference between Upper Stadia and Lower Stadia = 1.63 - 1.27 = 0.36 meter
Now convert the 0.36 meter into cm i.e, 0.36 x 100 = 36 cm.
In Autolevel machine, the scale of difference of Upper Stadia and Lower Stadia is designed in such a manner that it says,
1 cm = 1 m
So, we can say The horizontal distance is 36 meter.

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NOTES SNAPS
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Here is Video by Learning Technology explaining full process of measuring horizontal distance using Autolevel at site in Hindi


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LEARNING TECHNOLOGY is a Brand YouTube channel which contains Technical Lectures on "Civil Engineering" from personal field experience. This Channel is maintained by Civil Engineer MUKESH SAH. You can follow him by subscribing channel and HIT the bell for latest updates.
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Visit His Official Websites, Facebook Fan Page, Twitter.
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